SHARP APL

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SHARP APL running under DOSBox

SHARP APL was a standalone version of APL offered by I.P. Sharp Associates (IPSA), who had previously offered APL interpretation as a timesharing service. IPSA employed many notable APL designers including Ken Iverson, and SHARP APL was the source of many developments in flat array theory.

Primitive functions

Arithmetic

Scalar

All scalar functions have rank zero.

Glyph Monadic Dyadic
+ Conjugate/Identity Addition
- Negate Subtraction
× Signum Multiplication
÷ Reciprocal Division
* Exponential Power
Natural Logarithm Base-⍺ Logarithm
| Magnitude Residue
! Factorial Out-Of/Combinations
Floor Minimum
Ceiling Maximum
Pi Times Circle functions
And/Least Common Multiple (LCM)
Or/Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)
Nand
Nor
~ Not See Miscellaneous
? Roll See Non-scalar

Non-scalar

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
2 Matrix inverse ∞ 2 Matrix divide
? See Scalar * * Deal
∞ ∞ Encode
∞ ∞ Decode

Relational

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
= See Miscellaneous 0 0 Equals
See Miscellaneous 0 0 Not Equals
< See Structural 0 0 Less Than
0 0 Less Than or Equal
0 0 Greater Than or Equal
> See Structural 0 0 Greater Than
∞ ∞ Match
0 ∞ Membership
∞ ∞ Find

Indexing

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
@ See Miscellaneous 0 ∞ From
1 Count 1 0 Index Of
∞ ∞ Index
Numeric Grade up ∞ ∞ Character Grade up
Numeric Grade down ∞ ∞ Character Grade down

Structural

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
Shape of 1 ∞ Reshape
See Miscellaneous 1 ∞ Take
Raze 1 ∞ Drop
< Enclose/Box See Relational
Conditional Enclose ∞ ∞ Link
> 0 Disclose/Open See Relational
, Ravel ∞ ∞ Catenate
Table ∞ ∞ Catenate-Down
1 Reverse 0 1 Rotate
Reverse-Down ∞ ∞ Rotate-Down
Monadic Transpose 0 ∞ Dyadic Transpose

Miscellaneous

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
Stop ∞ ∞ Left
Pass ∞ ∞ Right
Nubsieve See Relational
Nub See Structural
= Nubin See Relational
~ See Scalar ∞ ∞ Less
@ 1 All See Indexing
Monadic Format * ∞ Dyadic Format
* Execute

Primitive Operators

Glyph Operands Ranks Monadic Call Dyadic Call
/ f Reduce
f Reduce-down
\ f Scan
f Scan-down
/ m Copy/Compress
m Copy-down/Compress-down
\ m Expand
m Expand-down
f rf lf Swap
& f Select
f g mg mg mg On (close Over)
f n n n n Rank
m g mg mg mg Cut
f g mg mg mg Upon (close Atop)
¨ f g mg mg mg Under
¨ m g mg With (Bind)
¨ f n mf
. f g 2 Alternant Inner-product
. m g Tie, Outer-product
. f m mf Ply

Implementation

Numeric types

SHARP originally supported only real numbers using double (8-byte) precision. Numbers were stored in one of three types:

  • Boolean, with one bit per value
  • Integer, with four bytes per value
  • Floating, with eight bytes per value

SATN-40 describes the addition of complex numbers to SHARP APL.

SHARP APL Technical Notes

Features of SHARP APL were documented in "technical notes" issued by IPSA. These notes are numbered following the scheme "SATN-0". Earlier notes typically had no author listed. A pdf collection of SHARP APL Technical Notes is hosted at jsoftware.com, as are html transcriptions of some notes, linked in the table below.

Number Issued Revised Author Title
0 1976-01-01 SATN Introduction
1 1976-01-01 TASKID
2 5 1979-02-14 Control Messages
3 1976-01-01 ⎕OUT
4 2 1978-04-01 N-tasks and B-tasks
5 2 1978-08-01 Batch APL
6 1976-01-01 Execute
7 1976-01-01 Latent Expression
8 2 1978-03-01 HSPRINT
9 1 1979-08-01 John D. Burger Usage Inquiry System
10 2 1978-06-01 SORTREQ
11 1976-01-01 )RESET
12 1976-01-01 )COPY
13 1978-03-10 Early Warnings
14 2 1978-08-15 Package - A New Variable Type
15 Index
16 1976-04-20 File System Must-Write Buffers
17 1976-06-01 Formatting Primitive
18 1976-07-01 ⎕FMT
19 1977-01-01 Fileprint
20 4 1978-06-01 System Variables, Session Variables and System Functions
21 1 1978-06-01 ⎕WS and ⎕FD
22 2 1979-01-01 Bob Bernecky and Mike Symes APL Worspace Transfer
23 1977-06-10 1 1978-07-15 Bob Bernecky Comparison Tolerance (web)
24 1977-03-23 Symbol Table
25 1977-05-15 Extensions to Argument Passing
26 1977-09-10 Enhancements to the File System
28 1977-07-11 Terminal Control
29 1978-06-15 System Time and Timestamps
30 1979-01-01 Numeric Display
31 1979-02-01 Line Editing in SHARP APL
32 1979-03-30 Shared Variables
33 1979-03-26 Event Trapping
34 1980-08-15 Bob Bernecky Replication
35 1980-08-15 Peter Wooster Extended Upgrade and Downgrade
36 1980-04-20 Ken Iverson Direct Definition
37 1 1982-06-01 John D. Burger IBM 3270 User Guide
39 1981-06-01 Richard Lathwell The SHARP APL S-task Interface
40 1981-06-20 Eugene McDonnell Complex Numbers (web)
41 1981-06-20 Ken Iverson Composition and Enclosure (web)
42 1982-04-01 Ken Iverson Determinant-Like Functions Produced by the Dot-Operator (web)
43 1982-11-05 Peter Wooster Improved Display for Enclosed Arrays and a New System Variable ⎕PS
44 1983-04-02 Robert C. Metzger Enhancements to Event Handling
45 1983-05-02 Various Language Extensions of May 1983
46 1983-08-05 Eric Iverson Enhancements Provided in Update #1 to the May 1983 Release of SHARP APL
47 1983-10-01 Mike Symes IBM 3270 User Guide (IDSH)
48 1983-11-30 John D. Burger Workspace 1 HCPRINT

External links

Wikipedia


APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+Win (APL*PLUS) ∙ APL2APL64APL\ivCo-dfnsDyalog APLdzaima/APLGNU APLNARS2000ngn/apl
Historical Iverson notationA Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL.68000APL.SVAPLXAPL\1130APL\360NARSopenAPLRowanSHARP APL (SAX) ∙ VisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VSAPLYork APL
Derivatives ELIJK (Q, KDB+) ∙ LYaPASNialRADAHPL