Close composition

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In SHARP APL and J, a close composition is one of the operators Atop, Over, or Under, defined so that the overall result has function rank equal to the right operand. In SHARP all composition operators follow this pattern, while in J, both close and non-close forms (with a result rank of infinity, matching the definition in most modern APLs) are provided.

Operator SHARP J close J non-close Modern
Atop @ @:
Over & &:
Under ¨ &. &.:


APL features [edit]
Built-ins Primitives (functions, operators) ∙ Quad name
Array model ShapeRankDepthBoundIndex (Indexing) ∙ AxisRavelRavel orderElementScalarVectorMatrixSimple scalarSimple arrayNested arrayCellMajor cellSubarrayEmpty arrayPrototype
Data types Number (Boolean, Complex number) ∙ Character (String) ∙ BoxNamespace
Concepts and paradigms Conformability (Scalar extension, Leading axis agreement) ∙ Scalar function (Pervasion) ∙ Identity elementComplex floorTotal array orderingTacit programming (Function composition, Close composition) ∙ Glyph
Errors LIMIT ERRORRANK ERRORSYNTAX ERRORDOMAIN ERRORLENGTH ERRORINDEX ERRORVALUE ERROR