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Uiua is a stack-based array language designed by Kai Schmidt using glyphs inspired mainly by BQN.


Uiua uses concatenative evaluation (a context-free grammar) with a right-to-left ordering as in Polish notation. The language supports tacit programming using stack manipulation primitives, and all complex functions must be defined this way as there is no explicit function form that allows local variables. Functions have a fixed number of input and output values, meaning the overloading of ambivalent functions is removed. Because of this, Uiua often splits APL primitives into two functions. Its primitives use Unicode glyphs including many not found in other languages. To avoid the need for a keyboard layout containing these, each primitive can also be spelled using a name that consists of lowercase letters (user-defined names must have at least one uppercase letter). By default, the language formats source files when run to convert these names into the corresponding glyphs.

Like the SHARP APL family, arrays are flat with a homogeneous type; however, functions in Uiua are first-class values, and instead of boxes, niladic constant-valued functions are used to provide array nesting.

Uiua was featured on Array Cast in 2023.

External links

  • Uiua on the concatenative language wiki

APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+WinAPL2APL64APL\ivApletteAprilCo-dfnsDyalog APLDyalog APL Visiondzaima/APLGNU APLKAPNARS2000Pometo
Historical A Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL\360APL/700APL\1130APL\3000APL.68000APL*PLUSAPL.jlAPL.SVAPLXExtended Dyalog APLIverson notationIVSYS/7090NARSngn/aplopenAPLOperators and FunctionsPATRowanSAXSHARP APLRationalized APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
Derivatives AHPLBQNCoSyELIGleeIIvyJJellyJellyfishK (Goal, Klong, Q) ∙ KamilaLispLang5NialRADUiua
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