Roll

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Roll (?) is a monadic scalar function which returns random or pseudo-random numbers. The name Roll comes from the analogy of rolling dice. Each scalar in the argument must be a positive integer, n, and Roll chooses one of the first n indices. Some dialects allow n to be zero, in which case Roll chooses a floating-point number between 0 and 1.

Examples

      ? 4  6                   ⍝ Roll four six-sided dice
1 4 1 1
      ? 3 2 1 0                 ⍝ The result for 1 is always 1
2 2 1 0.9637543707
      {[?8⍴≢]} 'Hello'        ⍝ Choose 8 random letters
eeHHHolo

Description

Each scalar in the argument to Roll must be a positive integer.

The result of Roll on each number n is either

  • One of the elements of n chosen uniformly at random; or
  • A real number between 0 and 1 chosen uniformly at random, if n is 0 and the dialect has this extension.

Because Iota depends on index origin, Roll depends on index origin unless every number in the argument is 0.

The choices made by Roll do not have to be truly random: they may be pseudorandom (generated by a deterministic but difficult to predict algorithm) or taken from the operating system. They way random numbers are generated is controlled by the random link ⎕RL.

External links

Lessons

Documentation

APL built-ins [edit]
Primitive functions
Scalar
Monadic ConjugateNotRollType
Dyadic PlusEqual to (Xnor) ∙ Not Equal to (Xor)
Non-Scalar
Structural ShapeReshapeDepthRavelReverse
Selection TakeDropUnique
Selector
Computational
Primitive operators Each
Quad names
Constants Index originMigration level
Functions
Operators
Other ZildeHigh minus