# Grade

**Grade** (`⍋`

, `⍒`

) is a pair of ambivalent primitive functions related to sorting. Instead of sorting the given array directly, Grade returns a permutation vector whose length equals the number of major cells, so that indexing into the argument gives the sorted array. The glyph `⍋`

is called **Grade Up** and gives the ascending sort order, while `⍒`

is called **Grade Down** and gives the descending sort order.

## Monadic form

Monadic Grade returns the sorting order of the major cells of the argument. Indexing into the original argument gives the sorted array; indexing into another array gives the result commonly known as **Sort By**.

⎕←A←↑'foo' 'bar' 'baz' ⍝ A character matrix foo bar baz ⍋A ⍝ Grade up its rows 2 3 1 A[⍋A;] ⍝ Move the rows to sorted order (ascending) bar baz foo ⍒A ⍝ Grade down its rows 1 3 2 A[⍒A;] ⍝ Move the rows to sorted order (descending) foo baz bar B←15 10 5 A[⍋B;] ⍝ Sort A by B baz bar foo

Grade performs stable sorting, so that the indices of the repeated major cells are sorted by the order of appearance. Because of this, Grade Down produces the reverse of Grade Up only if all the major cells are unique.

S←6 10 10 3 2 15 ⋄ T←S,¨⍳6 ⍝ Note that the order of two 10s are preserved in both cases (⍋S) (T[⍋S]) ┌───────────┬────────────────────────────┐ │5 4 1 2 3 6│┌───┬───┬───┬────┬────┬────┐│ │ ││2 5│3 4│6 1│10 2│10 3│15 6││ │ │└───┴───┴───┴────┴────┴────┘│ └───────────┴────────────────────────────┘ (⍒S) (T[⍒S]) ┌───────────┬────────────────────────────┐ │6 2 3 1 4 5│┌────┬────┬────┬───┬───┬───┐│ │ ││15 6│10 2│10 3│6 1│3 4│2 5││ │ │└────┴────┴────┴───┴───┴───┘│ └───────────┴────────────────────────────┘

Dyalog APL supports total array ordering when comparing nested arrays of possibly different shape and type. Grade is the only built-in function which can perform comparisons between arbitrary arrays of previously unknown order (Interval Index requires the left argument to be sorted beforehand).

⎕←A←(1(⍪2 3)) (1 3) (⊂0 1 2) ┌─────┬───┬───────┐ │┌─┬─┐│1 3│┌─────┐│ ││1│2││ ││0 1 2││ ││ │3││ │└─────┘│ │└─┴─┘│ │ │ └─────┴───┴───────┘ ⍋A 3 1 2

## Dyadic form

Dyadic Grade is limited to simple character array arguments. The left argument specifies the collation order to use when sorting the right argument.

If the left argument is a vector, the sorting order is simply the order of appearance in the left argument. In other words, `X⍋Y`

equals `⍋X⍳Y`

, and same for `⍒`

.

⎕A⍋'ZAM,.BIA' ⍝ Alphabetical order, garbage goes last 2 8 6 7 3 1 4 5 (⌽⎕A)⍋'ZAM,.BIA' ⍝ Reverse alphabetical order, garbage still goes last 1 3 7 6 2 8 4 5

If the left argument is a higher-rank array, sorting is done in multiple stages. The last axis of X takes highest precedence, then the next-to-last, and so on, giving ties to all characters that appear at the same index over the current axis. A notable application is case-insensitive sorting.

Data ABLE aBLE ACRE ABEL aBEL ACES Coll ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Coll⍋Data 4 5 1 2 6 3 Data[Coll⍋Data;] ABEL aBEL ABLE aBLE ACES ACRE

J does not implement dyadic grade, but provides **Sort By** as the dyadic counterparts of `/:`

and `\:`

instead.

## External links

### Documentation

- Dyalog Grade Up Monadic, Grade Down Monadic, Grade Up Dyadic, Grade Down Dyadic
- APLX Grade Up, Grade Down
- J Dictionary Grade Up, Grade Down, NuVoc Grade
- BQN

### Other

- APL Cultivation lesson
- Dyadic Grade by Roger Hui, Dyalog Blog
- abrudz/Sort library: Examples of sorting variations (Classic, Natural, Danish, Finnish, German) using dyadic grade