Difference between revisions of "Depth"

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:''This page is about array depth, a number associated with every array. For the operator that applies a function at a given depth, see [[Depth (operator)]].''
 
{{Built-in|Depth|≡}} is a [[monadic]] [[primitive function]] that returns an array's depth. In the APL [[array model]], the '''depth''' of an array is the number of levels of [[Nested array model|nesting]] or [[box]]ing it exhibits. In some languages, Depth returns a negative result to indicate that not all paths through the array have the same depth.  
 
{{Built-in|Depth|≡}} is a [[monadic]] [[primitive function]] that returns an array's depth. In the APL [[array model]], the '''depth''' of an array is the number of levels of [[Nested array model|nesting]] or [[box]]ing it exhibits. In some languages, Depth returns a negative result to indicate that not all paths through the array have the same depth.  
  
 
== Nested array depth ==
 
== Nested array depth ==
  
Nested APLs vary in their definition of depth. They may take into account the array's [[prototype]], or not, and may use the positive depth, signed depth, or minimum depth as defined below (the choice may also depend on [[migration level]]). The APL Wiki generally uses "depth" to mean the positive depth.
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Nested APLs vary in their definition of depth. They may take into account the array's [[prototype]], or not, and may use the positive or signed depth as defined below (the choice may also depend on [[migration level]]). The APL Wiki generally uses "depth" to mean the positive depth.
  
 
In the [[nested array model]], the depth is defined using the base case of a [[simple scalar]], which by definition has depth 0.
 
In the [[nested array model]], the depth is defined using the base case of a [[simple scalar]], which by definition has depth 0.
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The positive depth of a non-[[empty]] array other than a simple scalar is defined to be the largest depth among its [[element]]s, plus one. Thus a [[simple]] but non-[[scalar]] array has depth 1.
 
The positive depth of a non-[[empty]] array other than a simple scalar is defined to be the largest depth among its [[element]]s, plus one. Thus a [[simple]] but non-[[scalar]] array has depth 1.
  
The positive depth of an [[empty]] array is usually defined (for example, in [[Dyalog APL]]) to be the depth of its [[prototype]] plus one. It can also be set to 1, since it contains no elements but is not a simple scalar. This is the case in [[ngn/apl]].
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The positive depth of an [[empty]] array is usually defined (for example, in [[Dyalog APL]]) to be the depth of its [[prototype]] plus one. It can also be set to 1, since it contains no elements but is not a simple scalar. This is the case in [[ngn/apl]] and [[dzaima/APL]].
  
An array has a ''consistent depth'' if it is a simple scalar, or if all of its elements (including the prototype, if prototype is used to determine depth) have a consistent depth and are equal in depth. The signed depth of an array is an integer with [[absolute value]] equal to its positive depth. It is negative if and only if it does not have a consistent depth.
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An array has a ''consistent depth'' if it is a simple scalar, or if all of its elements (including the prototype, if prototypes are used to determine depth) have a consistent depth and are equal in depth. For example, the following works in all nested APLs with [[stranding]]:
 
 
[[dzaima/APL]] uses the minimum depth, which is 0 for a simple scalar and otherwise is one plus the ''minimum'' (rather than maximum) of the elements of a non-empty array. It defines the depth of an empty array to be one plus the depth of its prototype.
 
 
 
For arrays with a consistent depth the positive, signed, and minimum depth coincide. Thus the following example works in all nested APLs with [[stranding]].
 
 
<source lang=apl>
 
<source lang=apl>
 
       ≡('ab' 'cde')('fg' 'hi')
 
       ≡('ab' 'cde')('fg' 'hi')
 
3
 
3
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
 +
The signed depth of an array is an integer with [[Magnitude|absolute value]] equal to its positive depth. It is negative if and only if the array does not have a consistent depth.
  
 
A [[simple]] array must have a consistent depth, because it is either a [[simple scalar]] or contains only simple scalars. In the latter case each element necessarily has depth 0 and a consistent depth. Because of this it is not possible to have an array with a signed depth of ¯1: any array with a positive depth of 1 must be simple, and hence have consistent depth.
 
A [[simple]] array must have a consistent depth, because it is either a [[simple scalar]] or contains only simple scalars. In the latter case each element necessarily has depth 0 and a consistent depth. Because of this it is not possible to have an array with a signed depth of ¯1: any array with a positive depth of 1 must be simple, and hence have consistent depth.
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In the [[flat array model]], the depth is the number of levels of [[box]]ing in an array. More precisely, the depth of a non-boxed or [[empty]] array is 0, and a non-empty boxed array has depth equal to one plus the maximum of the depths of the arrays it contains.
 
In the [[flat array model]], the depth is the number of levels of [[box]]ing in an array. More precisely, the depth of a non-boxed or [[empty]] array is 0, and a non-empty boxed array has depth equal to one plus the maximum of the depths of the arrays it contains.
  
The [[J]] language uses the token <source lang=apl inline>L.</source> and name "Level Of" for depth.
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The [[J]] language uses the token <source lang=j inline>L.</source> and name "Level Of" for depth.
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
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* [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/Vocabulary/dollar#dyadic J Dictionary], [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/Vocabulary/lcapdot J NuVoc] (as <source lang=apl inline>L.</source> "Level of")  
 
* [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/Vocabulary/dollar#dyadic J Dictionary], [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/Vocabulary/lcapdot J NuVoc] (as <source lang=apl inline>L.</source> "Level of")  
 
{{APL features}}
 
{{APL features}}
{{APL built-ins}}
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{{APL built-ins}}[[Category:Primitive functions]]

Revision as of 18:43, 15 April 2021

This page is about array depth, a number associated with every array. For the operator that applies a function at a given depth, see Depth (operator).

Depth () is a monadic primitive function that returns an array's depth. In the APL array model, the depth of an array is the number of levels of nesting or boxing it exhibits. In some languages, Depth returns a negative result to indicate that not all paths through the array have the same depth.

Nested array depth

Nested APLs vary in their definition of depth. They may take into account the array's prototype, or not, and may use the positive or signed depth as defined below (the choice may also depend on migration level). The APL Wiki generally uses "depth" to mean the positive depth.

In the nested array model, the depth is defined using the base case of a simple scalar, which by definition has depth 0.

The positive depth of a non-empty array other than a simple scalar is defined to be the largest depth among its elements, plus one. Thus a simple but non-scalar array has depth 1.

The positive depth of an empty array is usually defined (for example, in Dyalog APL) to be the depth of its prototype plus one. It can also be set to 1, since it contains no elements but is not a simple scalar. This is the case in ngn/apl and dzaima/APL.

An array has a consistent depth if it is a simple scalar, or if all of its elements (including the prototype, if prototypes are used to determine depth) have a consistent depth and are equal in depth. For example, the following works in all nested APLs with stranding:

      ('ab' 'cde')('fg' 'hi')
3

The signed depth of an array is an integer with absolute value equal to its positive depth. It is negative if and only if the array does not have a consistent depth.

A simple array must have a consistent depth, because it is either a simple scalar or contains only simple scalars. In the latter case each element necessarily has depth 0 and a consistent depth. Because of this it is not possible to have an array with a signed depth of ¯1: any array with a positive depth of 1 must be simple, and hence have consistent depth.

Flat array depth

In the flat array model, the depth is the number of levels of boxing in an array. More precisely, the depth of a non-boxed or empty array is 0, and a non-empty boxed array has depth equal to one plus the maximum of the depths of the arrays it contains.

The J language uses the token L. and name "Level Of" for depth.

External links

Lessons

Documentation

APL features [edit]
Built-ins Primitive functionPrimitive operatorQuad name
Array model ShapeRankDepthBoundIndex (Indexing) ∙ AxisRavelRavel orderElementScalarVectorMatrixSimple scalarSimple arrayNested arrayCellMajor cellSubarrayEmpty arrayPrototype
Data types Number (Boolean, Complex number) ∙ Character (String) ∙ BoxNamespace
Concepts and paradigms Leading axis theoryScalar extensionConformabilityLeading axis agreementScalar functionPervasionGlyphIdentity elementComplex floorTotal array ordering
Errors LIMIT ERRORRANK ERRORSYNTAX ERRORDOMAIN ERRORLENGTH ERRORINDEX ERRORVALUE ERROR
APL built-ins [edit]
Primitive functions
Scalar
Monadic ConjugateNegateSignumReciprocalMagnitudeExponentialNatural LogarithmFloorCeilingFactorialNotPi TimesRollTypeImaginarySquare Root
Dyadic AddSubtractTimesDivideResiduePowerLogarithmMinimumMaximumBinomialComparison functionsBoolean functions (And, Or, Nand, Nor) ∙ GCDLCMCircularComplexRoot
Non-Scalar
Structural ShapeReshapeTallyDepthRavelEnlistTableCatenateReverseRotateTransposeRazeMixSplitEncloseNestCut (K)PairLinkPartitioned EnclosePartition
Selection FirstPickTakeDropUniqueIdentitySelectReplicateExpandSet functions (IntersectionUnionWithout) ∙ Bracket indexingIndex
Selector Index generatorGradeIndex OfInterval IndexIndicesDeal
Computational MatchNot MatchMembershipFindNub SieveEncodeDecodeMatrix InverseMatrix DivideFormatExecuteMaterialiseRange
Primitive operators Monadic EachCommuteConstantReplicateExpandReduceWindowed ReduceScanOuter ProductKeyI-beamSpawnFunction axis
Dyadic BindCompositions (Compose, Reverse Compose, Beside, Atop, Over) ∙ Inner ProductPowerAtUnderRankDepthVariantStencilCut (J)
Quad names
Arrays Index originMigration levelAtomic vector
Functions Name classCase convertUnicode convert
Operators SearchReplace