German terminology

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While written APL is mostly symbolic, facilitating communication of thought across human language barriers, instructional text and verbal conveying of APL subjects requires human language translations of the glyphs and primitives etc. This article attempts to provide a standard for German terminology used in such contexts, to ease the burden of translators, assist speakers, and in general lessen the risk of misunderstandings in conversation.

At the 2020 APL Germany meeting, Michael Baas described the motivation behind a German terminology standard and launched a survey to measure the importance of this.[1] APL Germany subsequently published an article detailing this.[2]


This list is incomplete. Please edit this page to contribute, keeping the list in alphabetical order by primary English term. The primary English term is the corresponding article name (which should be linked) if an article exists. Use the Discussion page to remark about translations you disagree with, or to provide suggestions for otherwise improving this page. When a translation has historical or external precedent, please add a reference to that.

Primary term Translation
Abort Beenden[3]
+ Add Addieren[3]
And Und[3]
Array Feld[4]
Assignment Wert Zuweisen[3]
Axis/Axes Achse(n)[3]
\ Backslash Gegenschrägstrich, Backslash
Beside Neben[5]
Branch Verzweigung[3]
Character vector Zeichenvektor
Case folding Case folding[5]
, Catenate Verbinde, Verkette[6][n[3]], Konkatenieren[7]
Ceiling Aufrunden[6][3]
Circle Kreis(Funktion)[3]
Comma bar Komma-Strich[5]
Compose Komponiere
? Deal Stichprobe[3]
Decode Verschlüsseln[3]
Encode Entschlüsseln[3]
\ Expand Expandieren[3]
* Exponential Potenzieren zur Basis e[3]
Compositional operators (see Function composition) Kompositions-Operatoren
Compress (see Replicate) Komprimieren[3] (Replicate/Replizieren sinnvoller)
Derived function Abgeleitete Funktionen[7], zusammengesetzte Funktion[3]
Disclose Auspacken
! Binomial Binomialkoeff.[3]
⎕CT Comparison tolerance Toleranz[3]
× Direction Vorzeichen [3]
÷ Divide Dividieren[3]
Dyadic Dyadisch (Zweistellig[6][3])
Drop Entfernen[6][3]
¨ Each Komponentenweise Ausführen[6]
Enclose Einpacken
= Equal to Gleich[3]
Execute Ausführen
! Factorial Fakultät[3]
Floor Abrunden[6][3]
Fork Gabel (Dreierzug)
Format (Funktion) Deaktivieren[6]
Format Formatieren[3]
(Function) composition Komposition[8]
Grade Sortierindex[6][3]
Grade Down Sortierindex, fallend[6]
Grade Up Sortierindex, steigend[6]
> Greater than Größer[3]
> Greater than or Equal to Größer-gleich[3]
Guard Wache[5]
Header line Kopfzeile[3]
¯ High minus hohes Minus, negatives Vorzeichen
Index Index, Indizieren[3]
Index Generator Indexvektor[3]
Index of Index Zeigen[3]
⎕IO Index origin Index anfang[3]
Indices Indizes, Indexe
to index indexieren, Indizieren[3]
. Inner product Inneres Produkt[3]
Jot Kringel[9]
Key Leiter[10]
Label Anweisungsname[3], Sprungmarke, Zeilenmarke
Laminate Schichten, Verketten Schichten[3]
Lamp Lampe[7]
⎕LX Latent expression Latenter Ausdruck[3]
Left Links
< Less than Kleiner[3]
< Less than or Equal to Kleiner-gleich[3]
Logarithm Logarithmieren[3]
Major cells
Match Prüfen auf Identität[6]
Matrix Divide [Lin. Gleichungs-system] Lösen[3]
Matrix Inverse Invertieren[3]
Maximum Maximieren[3]
Membership Existenzprüfung[6] (unsicher, Link für Diskussion)
Minimum Minimieren[3]
Mixed function Gemischte Funktion[3]
Monadic Monadisch (Einstellig[6][3])
Namespace Namensraum[7]
Nand Nicht Beide[3]
N-wise N-fach
Natural Logarithm Natürl. Logarithmieren[3]
- Negate Vorzeichen Umkehren[3]
Nest Nesten
Nested Arrays Geschachtelte Felder
Niladic Niladisch (Nullstellig[6][3])
Nor Weder noch[3]
Not Match nicht identisch[5]
Or Oder[3]
∘. Outer product Äußeres Produkt[3]
Over Über[5]
overstrike | Übeieinandertippen[3]
Pi times Mit π Multiplizieren[3]
Pick Entnehme
* Power Potenzieren[3]
Primitive function Elementarfunktion[6], Einfache Funktion
Primitive operator Elementaroperator[6], Einfacher Operator
Quad Fenster, Anforderung num. Ein.-/Ausgabe[3]
' Quote Hochkomma
Quote-quad Fenster mit Griff (?), Fenster-Hochkomma, Anforderung Textein-/ausgabe[3]
Rank Rang
, Ravel Aufreihen[6][3]
÷ Reciprocal Kehrwert[3]
Reduce Reduziere[n[3]]
Reduction Reduktion
| Residue Rest[3]
Replicate Replizieren
? Roll Zufallszahl [Auswählen][3]
Reverse Spiegeln[6], Parallel Spiegeln[3] (also for )
Reshape Rho, Strukturiere[n[3]]
Right Rechts
Scalar Skalar[3]
Scalar function Skalarfunktion[3]
- Subtract Subtrahieren[3]
? Roll Zufallszahl [Auswählen][3]
' Quote Hochkomma
Quote-Quad Fenster-Hochkomma
Same, Identity Indentität
Shape Rho, Struktrur zeigen (monadisch) bzw. strukturiere (dyadisch), Dimension [Zeigen][3]
⊂⊃Shoe (Left ⁓, Right ⁓) Schuh (Linker ⁓, Rechter ⁓)
| Magnitude Absolutbetrag, Betrag[3]
~ Not Negieren[3]
= Not Equal to Ungleich[3]
\ Scan Aufstufen[3]
/ Slash Schrägstrich, Slash
Slash-bar Schräg- und Querstrich (?)
Squish Quad/Squad schmales Fenster
Stencil (operator) Schablone[10] (Operator)
Tacit (function) Implizit (e Funktion)
⊣⊢ Tack (Left ⁓, Right ⁓) Stift (Linker ⁓, Rechter ⁓)
Take Entnehmen[6][3]
Tally (monadisch) Zähler
× Times Multiplizieren[3]
Thorn Dorn
3-Train Dreierzug
(Function) Train Zug
2-Train Zweierzug
Transpose Transponieren (when dyadic[3]), Diagonal Spiegeln (when monadic [3])
Unique Unikat
Unique Mask Unikat-Maske
Without Eliminiere (Ohne?)
Where Wo
Workspace Arbeitsbereich
zilde zilde


  1. Dieter Kilsch. APL Germany / GSE Herbsttagung 2020. November 10th, 2020.
  2. Baas, M. Deutsches APL (in German). APL Germany. November 24th, 2020.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 3.59 3.60 3.61 3.62 3.63 3.64 3.65 3.66 3.67 3.68 3.69 3.70 3.71 3.72 3.73 3.74 3.75 3.76 3.77 3.78 3.79 Dieter Lattermann. APL in Beispielen. Oldenbourg. 1982
  4. German Wikipedia: Feld (Datentyp)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Suggested by Michael Baas
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Hans Lochner: APL2 Handbuch
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 German Wikipedia: APL (Programmiersprache)
  8. German wikipedia: Komposition (Mathematik)
  9. German Wikipedia: Komposition (Mathematik)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Suggested by Adám Brudzewsky

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