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This page describes the monadic arithmetic function. For the dyadic function, see Power (function).

Exponential (*) is a monadic scalar function which computes the exponential function (i.e. the power of Euler's constant e) of the argument. Exponential shares the glyph * with the dyadic arithmetic function Power.


Euler's constant itself can be obtained by supplying 1 as the argument.


On APL implementations that support complex numbers, one can demonstrate Euler's identity (with the help of Pi Times ):

Works in: Dyalog APL


Exponential is a special case of Power with the default left argument of e (*1).

      ((*1)*  *) 0 1 ¯1 0J1
Works in: Dyalog APL

Exponential and natural log are inverses of each other, except where the natural log is undefined.

      (  *) 0 1 ¯1 0J1
      (  *) 1 ¯1 0J1 ⍝ natural log of zero is undefined
Works in: Dyalog APL

See also

External links


APL built-ins [edit]
Primitive functions
Monadic ConjugateNegateSignumReciprocalMagnitudeExponentialNatural LogarithmFloorCeilingFactorialNotPi TimesRollTypeImaginarySquare Root
Dyadic AddSubtractTimesDivideResiduePowerLogarithmMinimumMaximumBinomialComparison functionsBoolean functions (And, Or, Nand, Nor) ∙ GCDLCMCircularComplexRoot
Structural ShapeReshapeTallyDepthRavelEnlistTableCatenateReverseRotateTransposeRazeMixSplitEncloseNestCut (K)PairLinkPartitioned EnclosePartition
Selection FirstPickTakeDropUniqueIdentitySelectReplicateExpandSet functions (IntersectionUnionWithout) ∙ Bracket indexingIndex
Selector Index generatorGradeIndex OfInterval IndexIndicesDeal
Computational MatchNot MatchMembershipFindNub SieveEncodeDecodeMatrix InverseMatrix DivideFormatExecuteMaterialiseRange
Primitive operators Monadic EachCommuteConstantReplicateExpandReduceWindowed ReduceScanOuter ProductKeyI-BeamSpawnFunction axis
Dyadic BindCompositions (Compose, Reverse Compose, Beside, Withe, Atop, Over) ∙ Inner ProductPowerAtUnderRankDepthVariantStencilCut (J)
Quad names
Arrays Index originMigration levelAtomic vector
Functions Name classCase convertUnicode convert
Operators SearchReplace