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K denotes a family of programming languages designed by Arthur Whitney and commercialized by Morgan Stanley, Kx Systems, and Shakti. In 1985, while at Morgan Stanley, Whitney created the statically typed A dialect of APL. His colleagues extended A into A+ in 1988. Finally, Whitney presented the first K implementation in 1992, a "reduced instruction set" dialect which only used ASCII glyphs and limited arrays to (nested) vectors. For a long time, K's main role was as implementation language for Q, the query language of kdb+, which is an in-memory, column-based database. K7 (the first "Shakti K") was the first K to have full Unicode support, and it also uses a limited set non-ASCII glyphs in the core language, for example Ø and , however non-ASCII glyphs were removed in the subsequent K9.


See The Evolution of Database Software.

Year Version
1992 K0
1994 K1
1996 K2
2000 K4
unreleased K5
unreleased K6
2018 K7 (Shakti)
doesn't exist K8
2020 K9 (Shakti)



From the Kona Wiki.

Verb Monadic Dyadic Triadic Tetradic
+ flip (Transpose) plus
- negate minus
* first times
% reciprocal divide
| reverse max|or
& where min|and
^ shape power
! enumerate (includes Iota) rotate|mod
< grade up less than
> grade down greater than
= group equals
~ not, attribute match
@ atom at index amend/trap amend
? range (Unique) function inverse/find/draw/deal/sample invert-guess
_ floor drop|cut
, enlist (like Enclose) join
# count take|reshape
$ format dollar (conversions)
. make/unmake dictionary dot index amend/trap amend
: colon assignment
Adverb Definition
/ over (includes Reduce and Power)
\ scan
' each
/: each right
\: each left
': eachpair (like Windowed Reduce)

External links

APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+WinAPL2APL64APL\ivApletteAprilCo-dfnsDyalog APLDyalog APL Visiondzaima/APLGNU APLKapNARS2000Pometo
Historical A Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL2CAPL\360APL/700APL\1130APL\3000APL.68000APL*PLUSAPL.jlAPL.SVAPLXExtended Dyalog APLIverson notationIVSYS/7090NARSngn/aplopenAPLOperators and FunctionsPATRowanSAXSHARP APLRationalized APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
Derivatives AHPLBQNCoSyELIGleeIIvyJJellyK (Goal, Klong, Q) ∙ KamilaLispLang5LilNialRADUiua
Overviews Comparison of APL dialectsTimeline of array languagesTimeline of influential array languagesFamily tree of array languages