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|{{quote | "I have long been struck by the contrast between the success with which the adventurous learn APL by simply using it, and the frequent failure of lecture courses to communicate the simplicity and applicability of the language."|[[Ken Iverson]]. ''A Working Introduction to APL'', 1981.}}
|{{quote | "I have long been struck by the contrast between the success with which the adventurous learn APL by simply using it, and the frequent failure of lecture courses to communicate the simplicity and applicability of the language."|[[Ken Iverson]]. ''A Working Introduction to APL'', 1981.}}
|}
|}
To facilitate self-study, the resources here are classified by target audience. However, if you get stuck, don't hesitate to request help in the [[APL Orchard]] chat room or [https://stackoverflow.com/questions/ask?tags=apl ask a question on Stack Exchange].
To facilitate self-study, the resources here are classified by target audience. However, if you get stuck, don't hesitate to request help in one of the many [[chat rooms and forums]] or [https://stackoverflow.com/questions/ask?tags=apl ask a question on Stack Exchange].
 
It may be beneficial to learn the APL [[terminology]].


== For non-programmers ==
== For non-programmers ==
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Some of the best resources for somebody new to APL and programming in general are:
Some of the best resources for somebody new to APL and programming in general are:
<div style="column-width:40em">
<div style="column-width:40em">
* APL Wiki's [[simple examples]]
'''Interactive'''
* The [https://tryapl.org/?tab=3 Learn tab on TryAPL]
* The [https://tryapl.org/?tab=3 Learn tab on TryAPL]
* The book [[Mastering Dyalog APL]] by Bernard Legrand
* [http://www.microapl.com/apl/learn_apl.html Learning APL with APLX] (also [http://www.microapl.com/apl/LearningAPLwithAPLX.pdf as PDF])
* The [https://tutorial.dyalog.com Zark APL Tutor]
* The [https://tutorial.dyalog.com Zark APL Tutor]
'''Books'''
* [[Mastering Dyalog APL]] by Bernard Legrand
* [https://archive.org/details/apl-2-at-a-glance-brown-pakin-polivka/ APL2 at a Glance] by [[Jim Brown]], Sandra Pakin, and [[Ray Polivka]] (also [https://www.blitter.com/nextcloud/index.php/s/8cj5JMAxsrCc4Wd#pdfviewer in German])
* [http://www.microapl.com/apl/learn_apl.html Learning APL with APLX] (also [https://www.microapl.com/apl/LearningAPLwithAPLX.pdf as PDF])
* [https://romilly.github.io/o-x-o/an-introduction.html MENACE in APL] (early [[wikipedia:reinforcement learning|reinforcement learning]] project)
* [http://robertson.uk.net/Files/APL1&2.pdf A Practical Introduction to APL 1 & 2] (3 & 4 is [[#For novice APLers|for experts]])
'''Text'''
* APL Wiki's [[simple examples]]
* APL a Day: [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-0-introduction/ Introduction], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-1-functions/ Functions], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-2-arrays-values/ Arrays, Values], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-3-arrays-have-shape/ Arrays have Shape]
* APL a Day: [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-0-introduction/ Introduction], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-1-functions/ Functions], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-2-arrays-values/ Arrays, Values], [https://www.sacrideo.us/apl-a-day-3-arrays-have-shape/ Arrays have Shape]
* [http://robertson.uk.net/Files/APL1&2.pdf A Practical Introduction to APL 1 & 2] (3 & 4 is [[#For novice APLers|for experts]])
* [https://old.aplwiki.com/LearnApl/TutorialContents The tutorial from the old APL Wiki]
'''Video series'''
* [[APL_Quest#Problems_from_2016|APL Quest 2016]] by [[Adám Brudzewsky]]
* Découvrez le langage APL: parts [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nxq1BUUXobM 1], [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-E7BsMg_Qc 2], [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csx2Z-GEGPw 3] by Eric Schrafstetter (in French)
* Découvrez le langage APL: parts [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nxq1BUUXobM 1], [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-E7BsMg_Qc 2], [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csx2Z-GEGPw 3] by Eric Schrafstetter (in French)
* [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgTqamKi1MS3p-O0QAgjv5vt4NY5OgpiM Learn APL with neural networks]
* [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1955671BD6E21548 APLtrainer tutorials]
* [https://forums.fast.ai/t/apl-array-programming/97188 Learn APL: Every single glyph!] by Jeremy Howard
</div>
</div>
Follow one or a couple of these tutorials through and play around a bit. To learn APL the advice is similar to that for learning other languages: have a goal (something you want to accomplish) and try to do it. Along the way you are sure to come across the pitfalls and gotchas of the language, and with time you may come to understand what APL thinking means.
Follow one or a couple of these tutorials through and play around a bit. To learn APL the advice is similar to that for learning other languages: have a goal (something you want to accomplish) and try to do it. Along the way you are sure to come across the pitfalls and gotchas of the language, and with time you may come to understand what APL thinking means.
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== For programmers unfamiliar with APL ==
== For programmers unfamiliar with APL ==


This is a list of tutorials and other resources of interest to someone who knows about programming or is familiar with another programming language, but wants to learn more about APL.
This is a list of tutorials and other resources of interest to someone who knows about programming or is familiar with another programming language, but wants to learn more about APL. See also APL Wiki's lists of [[advanced examples]], [[books]], and [[papers]]. [https://github.com/vendethiel/trying.apl "Trying APL"] has examples for all primitives.
<div style="column-width:20em">
<div style="column-width:40em">
* APL Wiki's [[advanced examples]]
'''Interactive'''
* APL Wiki's [[Books]]
* APL Wiki's [[Papers]]
* [[APL Cultivation]] (chat lessons)
* [https://tryapl.org TryAPL online interpreter with lessons]
* [https://tryapl.org TryAPL online interpreter with lessons]
* [https://tutorial.dyalog.com/ Zark tutorial]
* [https://wordsandbuttons.online/apl_deserves_its_renaissance_too.html APL deserves its renaissance too] (on [[John Scholes' Conway's Game of Life]])
'''Text courses'''
* [https://rikedyp.github.io/APLWorkshop APL Workshop]
* [https://rikedyp.github.io/APLWorkshop APL Workshop]
* [https://github.com/nooodl/learnxinyminutes-docs/blob/master/apl.apl Learn X in Y minutes]
* [https://github.com/nooodl/learnxinyminutes-docs/blob/master/apl.apl Learn X in Y minutes]
* [https://codeburst.io/lets-learn-a-programming-language-5f374e4abae5 Let's Learn A Programming Language]
* Let’s Learn A Programming Language, [https://codeburst.io/lets-learn-a-programming-language-5f374e4abae5 part 1], [https://medium.com/codeburst/lets-learn-a-programming-language-part-2-ce1bd79aef1b part 2], and [https://codeburst.io/fizzbuzz-in-apl-a193d1954b4b FizzBuzz]
* The [[Mastering Dyalog APL]] book
* [https://tutorial.dyalog.com/ Zark tutorial]
* [https://github.com/vendethiel/trying.apl Trying APL]
* [https://github.com/annser/annser Artificial Neural Networks]
* [https://github.com/annser/annser Artificial Neural Networks]
* [https://codeburst.io/fizzbuzz-in-apl-a193d1954b4b FizzBuzz]
'''Video'''
* [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgTqamKi1MS3p-O0QAgjv5vt4NY5OgpiM Learn APL with neural networks] (series)
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UltnvW83_CQ An Introduction to APL]
'''Books'''
* [[Mastering Dyalog APL]] by Bernard Legrand
* [[Learning APL]] by [[User:Xpqz|Stefan Kruger]]
* [http://mgeiss.de/apl_euler.pdf Getting started in APL by solving Project Euler problems 1 to 50] by Matthias Geiss
* [https://archive.org/details/apl-2-at-a-glance-brown-pakin-polivka/ APL2 at a Glance] by [[Jim Brown]], Sandra Pakin, [[Ray Polivka]] (also [https://www.blitter.com/nextcloud/index.php/s/8cj5JMAxsrCc4Wd#pdfviewer in German])
</div>
</div>
[[Category:Lists]]


== For novice APLers ==
== For novice APLers ==
 
Besides for APL Wiki's [[advanced examples]], you can hone your APL skill with these materials.
* [http://robertson.uk.net/Files/APL3&4.pdf A Practical Introduction to APL 3 & 4]
<div style="column-width:40em">
 
'''Books'''
If you already have a fair grasp of APL's [[primitive function]]s and [[primitive operator|operators]], you can sharpen your skills by challenging yourself with these:
* [[APL Cultivations]] by [[Adám Brudzewsky]] (edited by [[user:xpqz|Stefan Kruger]])
* [https://aplcart.info/quiz APLcart Quiz]: Be challenged to write a function for a given task or to explain what a given function does. (Based on [[APLcart]] data.)
* [https://www.blitter.com/nextcloud/index.php/s/2Wg3HNWHRiYb5K7#pdfviewer APL2 in Depth] by Norman Thomson and [[Ray Polivka]]
 
* [http://robertson.uk.net/Files/APL3+4.pdf A Practical Introduction to APL 3 & 4]
* APL Crosswords: [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/1/ 1] [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/4/ 4] [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/5/ 5] — Fill in expressions and snippets to fulfil all the clues.
'''Video series'''
 
* [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgTqamKi1MS3p-O0QAgjv5vt4NY5OgpiM Learn APL with neural networks]
* [https://www.dyalog.com/2016-year-game.htm 2016 Year Game]: Find APL expressions involving exactly the digits 2 0 1 6 in that order to equal the numbers 0 to 100.
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6J0Au6AKGWw&list=PL5ZGZlm-yp_xQfzsBtD66HIMW1M97wCsE Triplets pythagoriciens] by OsKaR: A mathematical problem used as an introduction to the expressive power of APL (in French)
 
</div>
* [https://www.dyalog.com/2017-code-golf-challenge.htm 2017 Code Golf Challenge]: Find the shortest possible APL expression that evaluates 1…52 without using any number or character literals.
'''Challenges'''
 
* [https://www.jsoftware.com/papers/APL_exercises/ APL Exercises] by [[Roger Hui]]
* [https://www.dyalog.com/student-competition.htm Previous years' problems] from the [[APL Problem Solving Competition]]. Phase I problems are [https://problems.tryapl.org available with automated testing].
* [https://aplcart.info/quiz APLcart Quiz]: Be challenged to write a function for a given task or to explain what a given function does (based on [[APLcart]] data)
 
* APL Crosswords: [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/1/ 1] [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/4/ 4] [https://abrudz.github.io/crosswords/5/ 5] — Fill in expressions and snippets to fulfil all the clues
* [[APL-eusis]]: A game for honing your ability to "think in APL".
* [https://www.dyalog.com/2016-year-game.htm 2016 Year Game]: Find APL expressions involving exactly the digits 2 0 1 6 in that order to equal the numbers 0 to 100
* [https://www.dyalog.com/2017-code-golf-challenge.htm 2017 Code Golf Challenge]: Find the shortest possible APL expression that evaluates 1…52 without using any number or character literals
* [https://www.dyalog.com/student-competition.htm Previous years' problems] from the [[APL Problem Solving Competition]] (phase I problems are [https://problems.tryapl.org available with automated testing])
* [[Advent of Code]]: A collection of small programming puzzles
* [[APL-eusis]]: A game for honing your ability to "think in APL"


== For advanced APLers ==
== For advanced APLers ==


Here is a list of "how-to"s on various subjects:
Here is a list of "how-to"s on various subjects:
 
<div style="column-width:40em">
* [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLgTqamKi1MS3p-O0QAgjv5vt4NY5OgpiM Learn APL with neural networks] (video series)
* [[Error trapping with Dyalog APL]]
* [[Error trapping with Dyalog APL]]
* [[Error trapping in Dyalog APL forms]]
* [[Error trapping in Dyalog APL forms]]
* [[Calling APL from other languages]]
* [[Calling APL from other languages]]
* [[Calling other languages from APL]]
* [[Calling other languages from APL]]
* [[Performance tuning]]
* [[Performance tuning]]
* [[APL on the web]]
* [[APL on the web]]
* [[Parallel computing]]
* [[Parallel computing]]
 
* [https://old.aplwiki.com/CryptographyWithDyalogAndDotNet Cryptography with .Net]
* [[Cryptography]] <span style="background:yellow">← Migrate https://old.aplwiki.com/CryptographyWithDyalogAndDotNet</span>
 
* [[WPF XAML Demo]]
* [[WPF XAML Demo]]
</div>


== Haven't used APL in a while? ==
== Haven't used APL in a while? ==
Those who learned APL "in the early days" should note that several implementations have made significant extensions to the language and system in the last decade or two.
Those who learned APL "in the early days" should note that several implementations have made significant extensions to the language and system in the last decade or two.
 
<div style="column-width:40em">
* New primitive functions: <source lang=apl inline>⊢</source> [[Identity|Same]], [[Right_identity|Right]]; <source lang=apl inline>⊣</source> [[Identity|Same]], [[Left_identity|Left]]; <source lang=apl inline>⌷</source> [[Materialise]], [[Squad indexing|Index]]; <source lang=apl inline>≡</source> [[Depth]], [[Match]]; <source lang=apl inline>≢</source> [[Tally]], [[Not Match]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Where]], [[Interval Index]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Nest]], [[Partition]]
'''General'''
 
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XN1l1WiYc_o Dyalog APL for other APL users] (video)
* New primitive operators: <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Bind]], [[Beside]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Rank operator|Rank]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Key]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Stencil]]; <source lang=apl inline></source> [[Variant]]
* [[Assignment]]
 
* [[Control structure]]s
* Lambdas ([[dfns]]): [https://help.dyalog.com/16.0/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/Dynamic%20Functions%20and%20Operators.htm Intro]; [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/MultiLine%20Dynamic%20Functions.htm Details]; [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/Dynamic%20Operators.htm Operators]; [https://dfns.dyalog.com/n_contents.htm The dfns workspace] (collection of categorized utilities with extensive comments and notes)
* [[Namespace]]s
 
* [[Migration level]]
* [[Tacit programming]]: [[Dyalog APL]] documentation: [https://help.dyalog.com/16.0/Content/RelNotes14.0/Function%20Trains.htm Intro]; [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Introduction/Trains.htm Details]; [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kt4lMZbn-so short video]; [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2LqqBosvY0 long video]; [https://chat.stackexchange.com/rooms/52405/conversation/lesson-23-transcribing-to-and-reading-trains APL Cultivation lesson]
* [[User-defined operator]]s
 
* [[Error trapping with Dyalog APL|Error trapping]]
* Other features: [[Keyword]]s; [[Object-oriented programming]];[[namespace]]s
* [[Shyness]]
 
* [[Namelist]]s
{{APL development}}
* [[Keyword]]s
* [[Object-oriented programming]]
* [[Total array ordering]]
* [[Leading axis theory]]
* [[Complex number]]s
'''New primitive functions'''
* [[GCD]] and [[LCM]]
* [[Identity|Same]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⊢</syntaxhighlight> and <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⊣</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Materialise]] and [[Squad indexing|Index]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⌷</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Depth]] and [[Match]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>≡</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Tally]] and [[Not Match]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>≢</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Nub Sieve]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Where]] and [[Interval Index]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Nest]] and [[Partition]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⊆</syntaxhighlight>)
'''New primitive operators'''
* [[Power (operator)|Power operator]]
* [[Commute]] and [[Constant]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍨</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[At]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>@</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Bind]] and [[Beside]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Atop (operator)|Atop]] and [[Rank]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍤</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Over]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Key]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Stencil]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline></syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Variant]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍠</syntaxhighlight>)
* [[Spawn]] (<syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>&</syntaxhighlight>)
'''Lambdas ([[dfn]]s)'''
* [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/Dynamic%20Functions%20and%20Operators.htm Intro]
* [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/MultiLine%20Dynamic%20Functions.htm Details]
* [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Defined%20Functions%20and%20Operators/DynamicFunctions/Dynamic%20Operators.htm Operators]
* [https://dfns.dyalog.com/n_contents.htm The dfns workspace] (collection of categorized utilities with extensive comments and notes)
'''[[Tacit programming]]'''
* [https://help.dyalog.com/16.0/Content/RelNotes14.0/Function%20Trains.htm Intro]
* [https://help.dyalog.com/latest/Content/Language/Introduction/Trains.htm Details]
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kt4lMZbn-so Short video]
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2LqqBosvY0 Long video]
* [https://chat.stackexchange.com/rooms/52405/conversation/lesson-23-transcribing-to-and-reading-trains APL Cultivation lesson]
* [[Function composition]]
</div>
{{APL development}}[[Category:Lists]][[Category:Resources]]

Latest revision as of 08:52, 11 November 2022

"I have long been struck by the contrast between the success with which the adventurous learn APL by simply using it, and the frequent failure of lecture courses to communicate the simplicity and applicability of the language."

Ken Iverson. A Working Introduction to APL, 1981.

To facilitate self-study, the resources here are classified by target audience. However, if you get stuck, don't hesitate to request help in one of the many chat rooms and forums or ask a question on Stack Exchange.

It may be beneficial to learn the APL terminology.

For non-programmers

Some of the best resources for somebody new to APL and programming in general are:

Interactive

Books

Text

Video series

Follow one or a couple of these tutorials through and play around a bit. To learn APL the advice is similar to that for learning other languages: have a goal (something you want to accomplish) and try to do it. Along the way you are sure to come across the pitfalls and gotchas of the language, and with time you may come to understand what APL thinking means.

For programmers unfamiliar with APL

This is a list of tutorials and other resources of interest to someone who knows about programming or is familiar with another programming language, but wants to learn more about APL. See also APL Wiki's lists of advanced examples, books, and papers. "Trying APL" has examples for all primitives.

Interactive

Text courses

Video

Books

For novice APLers

Besides for APL Wiki's advanced examples, you can hone your APL skill with these materials.

Books

Video series

Challenges

For advanced APLers

Here is a list of "how-to"s on various subjects:

Haven't used APL in a while?

Those who learned APL "in the early days" should note that several implementations have made significant extensions to the language and system in the last decade or two.

General

New primitive functions

New primitive operators

Lambdas (dfns)

Tacit programming

APL development [edit]
Interface SessionTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ FontsText editors
Publications IntroductionsLearning resourcesSimple examplesAdvanced examplesMnemonicsStandardsA Dictionary of APLCase studiesDocumentation suitesBooksPapersVideosPeriodicalsTerminology (Chinese, German) ∙ Neural networksError trapping with Dyalog APL (in forms)
Sharing code Backwards compatibilityAPLcartAPLTreeAPL-CationDfns workspaceTatinCider
Implementation Developers (APL2000, Dyalog, GNU APL community, IBM, IPSA, STSC) ∙ ResourcesOpen-sourceMagic functionPerformanceAPL hardware