J: Difference between revisions

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| released              = 1990
| released              = 1990
| developer              = [[Jsoftware]] ([[Ken Iverson]], [[Roger Hui]])
| developer              = [[Jsoftware]] ([[Ken Iverson]], [[Roger Hui]])
| latest release version = J902-b / 2021-02-18
| latest release version = j903 / 2021-12-17
| influenced by          = [[SAX]], [[Rationalized APL]]
| influenced by          = [[SAX]], [[Rationalized APL]]
| influenced            = [[Dyalog APL]], [[NARS2000]], [[I]], [[BQN]]
| influenced            = [[Dyalog APL]], [[NARS2000]], [[I]], [[BQN]]
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| download              = [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/System/Installation System/Installation]
| download              = [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/System/Installation System/Installation]
| documentation          = [https://www.jsoftware.com/help/dictionary/contents.htm Dictionary], [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/NuVoc NuVoc]
| documentation          = [https://www.jsoftware.com/help/dictionary/contents.htm Dictionary], [https://code.jsoftware.com/wiki/NuVoc NuVoc]
| run online            = [https://joebo.github.io/j-emscripten/ Emscripten]
| run online            = [https://joebo.github.io/j-emscripten/ Emscripten], [https://jsoftware.github.io/j-playground/bin/html/ J playground]
}}
}}
'''J''' is an array language loosely following the [[SHARP APL]] tradition which uses [[wikipedia:ASCII|ASCII]] characters for primitive functionality and builds in [[leading axis theory]] and [[tacit programming]] as foundational design principles. J discards backwards compatibility with older APLs in order to simplify and regularize its syntax, redesign primitives to work on leading axes, and disentangle [[reduction]] from [[scan]]s and [[windowed reduction]]s (yielding the [[Prefix operator|prefix]] and [[infix operator]]s). However, J concepts such as [[function train]]s and the [[Indices]] function have been adopted by later APLs such as [[NARS2000]], [[Dyalog APL]], and [[dzaima/APL]]. J breaks the APL convention of writing primitives with a single glyph: instead, they are spelled with a single ASCII character possibly followed by one or two periods (<source lang=j inline>.</source>) or colons (<source lang=j inline>:</source>). It is also notable for its use of terms from English grammar to describe the language. For example, [[function]]s are called "verbs" while arrays are called "nouns".
'''J''' is an array language loosely following the [[SHARP APL]] tradition which uses [[wikipedia:ASCII|ASCII]] characters for primitive functionality and builds in [[leading axis theory]] and [[tacit programming]] as foundational design principles. J discards backwards compatibility with older APLs in order to simplify and regularize its syntax, redesign primitives to work on leading axes, and disentangle [[reduction]] from [[scan]]s and [[windowed reduction]]s (yielding the [[Prefix operator|prefix]] and [[infix operator]]s). However, J concepts such as [[function train]]s and the [[Indices]] function have been adopted by later APLs such as [[NARS2000]], [[Dyalog APL]], and [[dzaima/APL]]. J breaks the APL convention of writing primitives with a single glyph: instead, they are spelled with a single ASCII character possibly followed by one or two periods (<source lang=j inline>.</source>) or colons (<source lang=j inline>:</source>). It is also notable for its use of terms from English grammar to describe the language. For example, [[function]]s are called "verbs" while arrays are called "nouns".
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| 6.0  || 1992-10-24 || Error handling with <source lang=j inline>::</source>, additional [[system function]]s
| 6.0  || 1992-10-24 || Error handling with <source lang=j inline>::</source>, additional [[system function]]s
|-
|-
| 6.1  || 1992-11-26 || Amend operator <source lang=j inline>}</source>
| 6.1  || 1992-11-26 || [[Amend]] operator <source lang=j inline>}</source>
|-
|-
| 6.2  || 1992-12-20 || Derivative operator <source lang=j inline>D.</source>
| 6.2  || 1992-12-20 || Derivative operator <source lang=j inline>D.</source>
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| 9.02 || 2020-12-13 || "Direct definition" syntax for explicit functions, special semidual form <source lang=j inline>u&.:(a:`v)</source> added, minor incompatible changes
| 9.02 || 2020-12-13 || "Direct definition" syntax for explicit functions, special semidual form <source lang=j inline>u&.:(a:`v)</source> added, minor incompatible changes
|-
|-
| 9.03 || In beta    || Foreigns to enable nameref caching, Kahan summation with `+/!.0`
| 9.03 || 2021-12-17 || Modifier trains and other combinations, foreigns to enable nameref caching, Kahan summation with <source lang=j inline>+/!.0</source>
|}
|}


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