Difference between revisions of "Typing glyphs"

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=== Linux ===
 
=== Linux ===
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{{Main|Typing glyphs on Linux}}
  
[[Geoff Streeter]] authored a paper, [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/conference/dyalog10/presentations/P19_Streeter_Keyboards.pdf Supporting APL keyboards on Linux], which was presented at the [https://aplwiki.com/wiki/Dyalog_user_meeting#Dyalog_.2710 Dyalog '10] user meeting. In this paper, Geoff details how APL keyboards can be supported in [[wikipedia:X_Window_System|X11]] using <source lang=console inline>xkb</source>, the [https://www.x.org/wiki/XKB/ X Keyboard Extension].
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Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.
 
 
Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have [https://forums.dyalog.com/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=210 Dyalog keyboard support] included with the distribution.
 
 
 
==== setxkbmap ====
 
 
 
The simplest way to set up an APL keyboard on Linux is with the following <source lang=console inline>setxkbmap</source> command. Enter the following in your terminal emulator of choice:
 
 
 
<source lang=console>
 
setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
 
</source>
 
 
 
An explanation:
 
 
 
* <source lang=console inline>-layout us,apl</source> assigns <source lang=console inline>us</source> ([[wikipedia:American_English|U.S. English]]) to be the primary layout, whereas <source lang=console inline>apl</source> is secondary
 
 
 
* <source lang=console inline>-option grp:switch</source> assigns <kbd>Right Alt</kbd> to switch to the secondary <source lang=console inline>apl</source> layout when it is pressed, otherwise <source lang=console inline>us</source> is used
 
 
 
* <source lang=console inline>-variant ,dyalog</source> assigns the [[Dyalog APL]] variant to the <source lang=console inline>apl</source> layout which contains modifiations unique to the Dyalog language ('''Note the preceding comma''')
 
 
 
A full list of keys that can be used to switch layouts is included in <source lang=console inline>/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.lst</source> under the <source lang=console inline>option</source> category.
 
 
 
'''Note:''' these changes are not permanent; the user will have to select one of a myriad of methods to run the command on startup. Alternatively, if they use one of the [[wikipedia:Desktop_environment|desktop environments]] listed below, they can follow those instructions.
 
 
 
==== GNOME ====
 
 
 
===== GUI =====
 
 
 
# Open the Activities menu; this is located in the top-left corner of a default GNOME 3 session (alternatively, use your <kbd>Super</kbd> key to open the Activities overlay):<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-1.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 1: Open Activities Menu]]
 
# Search for "startup." When the Startup Applications program is highlighted, press the <kbd>Enter</kbd> key to open it: <br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-2.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 2: Search for Startup Applications]]
 
#Select the <kbd>Add</kbd> button on the right-hand side:<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-3.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 3: Click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button in Startup Applications window]]
 
#Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>Add</kbd> when finished:<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-4.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 4: Enter the relevant information for your command]]
 
 
 
===== Terminal =====
 
 
 
# Navigate to <code>~/.config/autostart</code> and create a <code>.desktop</code> with any name that will help you remember its function.
 
# Add the following to the contents of your file, customizing to suit your needs:<source lang=ini>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Type=Application
 
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
 
Hidden=false
 
NoDisplay=false
 
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=true
 
Name[en_US]=apl-keyboard
 
Name=apl-keyboard
 
Comment[en_US]=
 
Comment=
 
</source>
 
 
 
==== LXDE ====
 
 
 
# Prepend an <source lang=console inline>@</source> to the <source lang=console inline>setxkbmap</source> command from above:<br><source lang=console>
 
@setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
 
</source>
 
# Add it as a line in your user's LXDE <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> file, located at:<br><source lang=console>
 
~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
 
</source>
 
 
 
For Lubuntu versions up to and including 18.04 (before the LXQt split), the location of <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> is <source lang=console inline>~/.config/lxsession/Lubuntu/autostart</source>.
 
 
 
==== LXQt ====
 
 
 
===== GUI =====
 
 
 
# From your LXQt panel, navigate to ''Preferences'' → ''LXQt Settings'' → ''Session Settings''; alternatively, enter <source lang=console inline>lxqt-config-session</source> in your terminal emulator. You will be greeted with the following window:<br>[[File:Lxqt-session-settings.png|frameless|LXQt Autostart menu of Session Settings window]]
 
# Select the <source lang=console inline>LXQt Autostart</source> dropdown (it will be highlighted as shown above) and click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button to display the following pop-up window:<br>[[File:Lxqt-add-autostart.png|frameless|LXQt add a new autostart menu item]]
 
# Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>OK</kbd> when finished.
 
 
 
===== Terminal =====
 
 
 
The above GUI approach merely creates a <source lang=console inline>.desktop</source> file in the user's <source lang=console inline>~/.config/autostart</source>. Create your own file in the <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> directory whose contents are as follows, to replicate the functionality achieved through the GUI:
 
 
 
<source lang=ini>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
 
Name=apl-keyboard
 
OnlyShowIn=LXQt;
 
Type=Application
 
Version=1.0
 
</source>
 
 
 
==== MATE ====
 
 
 
===== GUI =====
 
 
 
# Open your MATE menu (in the top-left corner of a default environment) and select ''Control Center'' at the bottom of the window:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-1.png|frameless|Launch the Control Center from the MATE menu]]
 
# Scroll down through the main window, and under the ''Personal'' category, select ''Startup Applications'':<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-2.png|frameless|Scroll down to the Startup Applications option]]
 
# Click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button on the right-hand side:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-3.png|frameless|Click <kbd>Add</kbd> to add a new startup command]]
 
# Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>Add</kbd> when finished:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-4.png|frameless|Enter the setxkbmap command you wish to use]]
 
 
 
===== Terminal =====
 
 
 
Navigate to <code>~/.config/autostart</code> and create a <code>.desktop</code> with any name that will help you remember its function.
 
 
 
Add the following to the contents of your file, customizing to suit your needs:
 
 
 
<source lang=ini>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Type=Application
 
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
 
Hidden=false
 
X-MATE-Autostart-enabled=true
 
Name[en_US]=apl-keyboard
 
Name=apl-keyboard
 
Comment[en_US]=
 
Comment=
 
X-MATE-Autostart-Delay=0
 
</source>
 
 
 
==== Xfce ====
 
 
 
A tutorial specific to Xfce's config files can be found [https://github.com/hashslingrz/apl-keyboard-xfce at this GitHub repository].
 
  
 
== Approaches to Layout and Input ==
 
== Approaches to Layout and Input ==

Revision as of 09:53, 21 May 2020

APL uses a large range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become memorized over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the beginner. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.

How to Set up an APL Keyboard

Text editors

Keyboard layout extensions exist for several popular text editors like VS Code, Emacs and Vim. This can be an alternative, or complementary, to system-wide settings.

The in-browser language bar

Web

Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.

Windows

Hacker's Keyboard + APL language

Android

dzaima's Hacker's Keyboard + APL language uses a long-press to access APL glyphs.

Linux

Main article: Typing glyphs on Linux

Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.

Approaches to Layout and Input

Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original APL\360 terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:

┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬─────────┐
│~ ⌺ │! ⌶ │@ ⍫ │# ⍒ │$ ⍋ │% ⌽ │^ ⍉ │& ⊖ │* ⍟ │( ⍱ │) ⍲ │_ ! │+ ⌹ │Backspace│
│` ⋄ │1 ¨ │2 ¯ │3 < │4 ≤ │5 = │6 ≥ │7 > │8 ≠ │9 ∨ │0 ∧ │- × │= ÷ │         │
├────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬──────┤
│Tab    │Q   │W   │E ⍷ │R   │T ⍨ │Y   │U   │I ⍸ │O ⍥ │P ⍣ │{ ⍞ │} ⍬ │| ⊣   │
│       │q ? │w ⍵ │e ∊ │r ⍴ │t ~ │y ↑ │u ↓ │i ⍳ │o ○ │p * │[ ← │] → │\ ⊢   │
├───────┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴──────┤
│Caps    │A   │S   │D   │F   │G   │H   │J ⍤ │K ⌸ │L ⌷ │: ≡ │" ≢ │Enter     │
│Lock    │a ⍺ │s ⌈ │d ⌊ │f _ │g ∇ │h ∆ │j ∘ │k ' │l ⎕ │; ⍎ │' ⍕ │          │
├────────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──────────┤
│Shift      │Z ⊆ │X   │C   │V   │B   │N   │M   │< ⍪ │> ⍙ │? ⍠ │Shift       │
│           │z ⊂ │x ⊃ │c ∩ │v ∪ │b ⊥ │n ⊤ │m | │, ⍝ │. ⍀ │/ ⌿ │            │
└───────────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────────────┘

Additional charts for other layouts are available.

There are multiple ways to access the glyphs associated with a particular key.

Shifting key

It is quite common to use Ctrl or Alt or AltGr (right-side Alt) as an additional shifting key. For example, AltGr+AltGr+4 would give while AltGr+Shift+4 would give .

  • APLX uses AltGr with an option to also use Alt

Prefix key

A prefix key is a special key or character which is entered immediately before typing the corresponding key.

  • TryAPL and ngn/apl's scripted demo interface support ` as prefix key.
  • The Dyalog Unicode IME and the Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) uses ` by default, but allows choosing any key as prefix key.
RIDE keyword lookup

Keyword look-up

  • The Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (` by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. `,`,d,i,v,Tab↹ inserts ÷.

ASCII symbol combination

  • Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. ngn/apl's scripted demo interface and Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar allow such a pair of characters and hitting the Tab↹ key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <,-,Tab↹ will insert and T,o,Tab↹ will insert .
NARS2000 language bar

On-screen language bar

Several APL IDEs allow the display of a toolbar with a button for each APL glyph:

US keyboard with Dyalog APL glyphs

Hardware

A couple of keyboards are being sold with APL symbols pre-printed onto the key caps:


APL development [edit]
Interface SessionTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ FontsText editors
Publications IntroductionsLearning resourcesSimple examplesAdvanced examplesMnemonicsStandardsA Dictionary of APLCase studiesDocumentation suitesBooksPapersVideosPeriodicals
Sharing code APLcartAPLTree
Vendors APL2000DyalogGNU APL communityIBMIPSASTSC
APL glyphs [edit]
Information GlyphTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ UnicodeFontsMnemonics
Individual glyphs Jot () ∙ Right Shoe () ∙ Up Arrow () ∙ Zilde () ∙ High minus (¯) ∙ Dot (.)