Timeline of APL primitives

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The following table lists APL primitives, primitive extensions, and primitive-like syntax that are implemented across many dialects, or are precursors of such features. Features are ordered by the first APL dialect to implement them, and previous definitions in other array languages or as proposals are indicated in parentheses. Because primitives tend to have multiple names and may even change name within a dialect, common modern names are used rather than the name when introduced.

Year Dialect Primitives
1965 IVSYS/7090 Identity (+), Add, Negate, Subtract, Multiply, Divide, Floor, Ceiling, Minimum, Maximum, Absolute value, Modulus, Exponential, Power, Not, And, Or, comparisons, Iota, Index of, Shape, Reshape, Ravel, Catenate, Rotate (as ↑↓), Member of, Encode, Decode, Reduce, Compress, Expand, Inner product, Outer product, Assignment (including indexed), Bracket indexing, Branch/Label
1966 APL\360 Reciprocal, Natural Logarithm, Factorial, Combinations, Roll, Transpose, Reverse/Rotate (), Function axis
1968 APL\360 Signum, Logarithm, Deal, Pi times, Circular, Nand, Nor, Take (), Drop (), Grade, Reverse First/Rotate First (), I-Beam
1970 APL\360 overtake with Take
1970 APL\360 Matrix Inverse, Matrix Divide, Laminate (,[])
1973 APL.SV Execute, Format, Scan
1974 APL/700 Union, Intersection, Set Difference (but these functions only return unique elements), modified assignment (scalar dyadics only)
1980 SHARP APL GCD/LCM extending Or/And (proposed McDonnell 1975)
1980 SHARP APL Replicate extending Compress (Bernecky 1980)
dyadic and high-rank Grade (proposed Howard Smith 1979)
1981 NARS Enclose, Match, Pick, nested Index Generator, stranded assignment (proposed Brown 1971)
Unique, Union, Intersection, Set Difference, Commute (), Under (), Power (), Windowed Reduction (Operators and Functions 1978)
Partitioned Enclose (), First (), Type (), Split (), Mix (), Not Match, Catenate First (), Compose (), Each (¨), Zilde, Choose indexing
1981 SHARP APL function rank, close Over (), Atop (), Under (¨) (Operators and Functions 1978; not widely adopted)
complex extensions: Circular functions 8 and up (McDonnell 1977), Conjugate (proposed Paul Penfield 1977; IBM documentation by 1975)
1982 SHARP APL Determinant (.) (Iverson 1982)
1982 SHARP APL complex Floor, Ceiling, Modulus, Encode (McDonnell 1973)
1983 SHARP APL Rank operator () (Whitney 1982)
Left (), Right (), Conditional enclose/Link ()
1984 APL2 First () and Mix () opposite to NARS, Partition (), Enlist (), Find (), Depth (), Index (), selective assignment
1987 SHARP APL Table ()
short left argument for Take, Drop
1989 SHARP APL Nub Sieve (), Raze () (A Dictionary of APL 1987)
2009 NARS2000 Function trains (proposed Iverson and McDonnell 1989; J 1990)
2010 NARS2000 Tally (>, changed to following Dyalog, 2011) (A+ 1988, J 1990)
2010 NARS2000 Indices () (K 1996, J 2003)
2011 NARS2000 Over () (SHARP (close) 1981)
2011 NARS2000 Square Root/Root () (proposed McDonnell 1986; J 1990)
2011 Dyalog APL Key () (J 1990)
2014 Dyalog APL 2-train as Atop (proposed Hui 2006; I 2012), major cell search (A+ 1988)
2017 Dyalog APL At (@) (Scholes)
Stencil () (from Cut: Rationalized APL 1983, J 1994)
Interval Index () (A+ 1988, J 2006)
Nest () (SHARP 1983)
2019 dzaima/APL Reverse Compose () (I 2012, Extended Dyalog APL 2019)
2020 Dyalog APL Atop () (SHARP (close) 1981), Constant () (I 2012)

See also

APL built-ins [edit]
Primitives (Timeline) Functions
Monadic ConjugateNegateSignumReciprocalMagnitudeExponentialNatural LogarithmFloorCeilingFactorialNotPi TimesRollTypeImaginarySquare Root
Dyadic AddSubtractTimesDivideResiduePowerLogarithmMinimumMaximumBinomialComparison functionsBoolean functions (And, Or, Nand, Nor) ∙ GCDLCMCircularComplexRoot
Structural ShapeReshapeTallyDepthRavelEnlistTableCatenateReverseRotateTransposeRazeMixSplitEncloseNestCut (K)PairLinkPartitioned EnclosePartition
Selection FirstPickTakeDropUniqueIdentityStopSelectReplicateExpandSet functions (IntersectionUnionWithout) ∙ Bracket indexingIndexCartesian ProductSort
Selector Index generatorGradeIndex OfInterval IndexIndicesDealPrefix and suffix vectors
Computational MatchNot MatchMembershipFindNub SieveEncodeDecodeMatrix InverseMatrix DivideFormatExecuteMaterialiseRange
Operators Monadic EachCommuteConstantReplicateExpandReduceWindowed ReduceScanOuter ProductKeyI-BeamSpawnFunction axis
Dyadic BindCompositions (Compose, Reverse Compose, Beside, Withe, Atop, Over) ∙ Inner ProductDeterminantPowerAtUnderRankDepthVariantStencilCutDirect definition (operator)
Quad names Index originComparison toleranceMigration levelAtomic vector