Maintaining readability of APL can take a special effort. It is easy to write very dense code, and the mathematical look of APL can encourage usage of single-letter names. Traditionally, APLers use the term pornography to describe code that is hard to read, or uses unusual constructs. Code golf often results in pornographic code.
Gilman & Rose
In APL ― An Interactive Approach, the authors describe the following code, which computes the correlation coefficient, as “almost pornographic”:
By splitting the expression intro even a moderate number of pieces, a symmetry is revealed:
yVar←+/(y-(+/y)÷⍴y)*2 xVar←+/(x-(+/x)÷⍴x)*2 r←(+/x×y)÷(xVar×yVar)×0.5
This also avoids reusing variable names, and thus ensures that the code can be rerun from any point. The chosen additional variable names are still short, but quite indicative of what they signify (variance). Finally, the
.5 is expanded to
0.5 which helps to clarify that this is a decimal number and not an inner product.
A more modern approach breaks out the symmetry into a utility function train, and uses leading axis theory combined with operators and reordering of terms to avoid parentheses (which would otherwise require a mental stack to understand). Finally, the correlation coefficient is defined as a stand-alone function, using inner product to combine summation with multiplication
Var←+/2*⍨⊢-+⌿÷≢ R←2×+.×÷×⍥Var r←x R y
+⌿÷≢ is an idiom (common phrase) and is read as average by even moderately experienced APL programmers.
The APL2 Idiom list includes the following entry:
⍝ Pornography. Combining two lines into one.
This was a common technique before Left was added to the language:
X←'line1' ⊣ Y←'line2'
The Diamond statement separator (
⋄) provides an alternative means of inlining multiple statements:
Y←'line2' ⋄ X←'line1'
Note that in all these cases,
Y is assigned first.
Morten Kromberg asked one of his colleagues to “Please avoid this kind of pornography:”
ns←ns container.(⍎⎕NS) ⍬
Finally, splitting the 2-train apart makes it even clearer:
ns←⍎ns container.⎕NS ⍬
A new namespace, with the original value of
ns as name, is created inside
container and the character representation
'#.container.ns' is returned from
⍎ which evaluates the name to a reference, that in turn replaces the previous value of