Language overview

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This page gives a structured overview of the APL programming language.

Development

APL development [edit]
Interface SessionTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ FontsText editors
Publications IntroductionsLearning resourcesSimple examplesAdvanced examplesMnemonicsStandardsA Dictionary of APLCase studiesDocumentation suitesBooksPapersVideosPeriodicals
Sharing code Backwards compatibilityAPLcartAPLTreeAPL-CationDfns workspace
Vendors APL2000DyalogGNU APL communityIBMIPSASTSC

Features

APL features [edit]
Built-ins Primitive functionPrimitive operatorQuad name
Array model ShapeRankDepthBoundIndex (Indexing) ∙ AxisRavelRavel orderElementScalarVectorMatrixSimple scalarSimple arrayNested arrayCellMajor cellSubarrayEmpty arrayPrototype
Data types Number (Boolean, Complex number) ∙ Character (String) ∙ BoxNamespace
Concepts and paradigms Leading axis theoryScalar extensionConformabilityScalar functionPervasionGlyphIdentity elementComplex floorTotal array ordering
Errors LIMIT ERRORRANK ERRORSYNTAX ERRORDOMAIN ERRORLENGTH ERRORINDEX ERRORVALUE ERROR

Syntax

APL syntax [edit]
General Comparison with traditional mathematicsPrecedenceTacit programming
Array Numeric literalStringStrand notationObject literalArray notation
Function ArgumentFunction valenceDerived functionDerived operatorNiladic functionMonadic functionDyadic functionAmbivalent functionTradfnDfnFunction train
Operator OperandOperator valenceTradopDopDerived operator
Assignment MultipleIndexedSelectiveModified
Other Function axisBranchQuad nameSystem commandUser commandKeywordDot notationFunction-operator overloading

Dialects

APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+Win (APL*PLUS) ∙ APL2APL64APL\ivAprilCo-dfnsDyalog APLdzaima/APLExtended Dyalog APLGNU APLNARS2000ngn/apl
Historical Iverson notationA Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL.68000APL.SVAPLXAPL\1130APL\3000APL\360APL/700NARSopenAPLRowanSAXSHARP APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
Derivatives AHPLAPL\ivBQNELIIIvyJJellyK (Q, KDB+) ∙ NialRAD

Community

APL community [edit]
Activities Dyalog user meetingsDyalog webinarsAPL Problem Solving CompetitionConferencesIverson AwardCode golfAPL CultivationSharing code
User groups APL Borealis (Canada) ∙ APL et J (France) ∙ APL-GermanyBAA (UK) ∙ FinnAPL (Finland) ∙ JAPLA (Japan) ∙ SAUG (Switzerland) ∙ SIGAPL (USA) ∙ SwedAPL (Sweden)
People Phil AbramsBob BerneckyLarry BreedCharles BrennerJim BrownAdám BrudzewskyGitte ChristensenPhilip Van CleavePeter DonnellyDan DyerAdin FalkoffGarth FosterRoger HuiKen IversonMorten KrombergMarshall LochbaumEugene McDonnellJohn McPhersonJon McGrewDonald McIntyreRoger MooreAlex MorrowAlan PerlisAl RoseWilliam RutiserJohn ScholesIan SharpLynne ShawBob SmithGeoff StreeterRoy SykesRaymond TisserandArthur WhitneyClark Wiedmann
Other APL OrchardSubredditsAPL WikiBlogsForumsBooksPapersAPL Quote Quad

Built-ins

APL built-ins [edit]
Primitive functions
Scalar
Monadic ConjugateNegateSignumReciprocalMagnitudeExponentialNatural LogarithmFloorCeilingFactorialNotPi TimesRollTypeImaginarySquare Root
Dyadic AddSubtractTimesDivideResiduePowerLogarithmMinimumMaximumBinomialComparison functionsBoolean functions (And, Or, Nand, Nor) ∙ GCDLCMCircularComplexRoot
Non-Scalar
Structural ShapeReshapeTallyDepthRavelEnlistTableCatenateReverseRotateTransposeRazeMixSplitEncloseNestCut (K)PairLinkPartitioned EnclosePartition
Selection FirstPickTakeDropUniqueIdentitySelectReplicateExpandSet functions (IntersectionUnionWithout) ∙ Bracket indexingIndex
Selector Index generatorGradeIndex OfInterval IndexIndicesDeal
Computational MatchNot MatchMembershipFindNub SieveEncodeDecodeMatrix InverseMatrix DivideFormatExecuteMaterialiseRange
Primitive operators Monadic EachCommuteConstantReplicateExpandReduceWindowed ReduceScanOuter ProductKeyI-beamSpawnFunction axis
Dyadic BindCompositions (Compose, Reverse Compose, Beside, Atop, Over) ∙ Inner ProductPowerAtUnderRankDepthVariantStencilCut (J)
Quad names
Arrays Index originMigration levelAtomic vector
Functions Case convertUnicode convert
Operators SearchReplace