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The J programming language combines an ASCII encoding of APL as embodied by SHARP APL with functional techniques developed by John Backus for the FP and FL languages. J is characterized by its use of leading axis theory as a foundational design principle and its tacit programming capabilities. Function trains are a key J feature and were later adopted by Dyalog APL. J's primitives consist of a single ASCII character possibly followed by one or two periods (.) or colons (:). It is also notable for its use of terms from English grammar to describe the language. For example, functions are called "verbs" while arrays are called "nouns".

APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+WinAPL2APL64APL\ivApletteAprilCo-dfnsDyalog APLdzaima/APLExtended Dyalog APLGNU APLKAPNARS2000Pometo
Historical A Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL\360APL/700APL\1130APL\3000APL.68000APL*PLUSAPL.jlAPL.SVAPLXIverson notationIVSYS/7090NARSngn/aplopenAPLOperators and FunctionsPATRowanSAXSHARP APLRationalized APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
Derivatives AHPLBQNCoSyELIGleeIIvyJJellyJellyfishK (Q, KDB+) ∙ Lang5NialRAD
Overviews Timeline of array languagesTimeline of influential array languagesFamily tree of array languages