German terminology

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While written APL is mostly symbolic, facilitating communication of thought across human language barriers, instructional text and verbal conveying of APL subjects requires human language translations of the glyphs and primitives etc. This article attempts to provide a standard for German terminology used in such contexts, to ease the burden of translators, assist speakers, and in general lessen the risk of misunderstandings in conversation.

At the 2020 APL Germany meeting, Michael Baas described the motivation behind a German terminology standard and launched a survey to measure the importance of this.[1] APL Germany subsequently published an article detailing this.[2]


This list is incomplete. Please edit this page to contribute, keeping the list in alphabetical order by primary English term. The primary English term is the corresponding article name (which should be linked) if an article exists. Use the Discussion page to remark about translations you disagree with, or to provide suggestions for otherwise improving this page. When a translation has historical or external precedent, please add a reference to that.

Primary term Translation
<source lang=apl inline>→</syntaxhighlight> Abort Beenden[3]
<source lang=apl inline>+</syntaxhighlight> Add Addieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>∧</syntaxhighlight> And Und[3]
Array Feld[4]
<source lang=apl inline>←</syntaxhighlight> Assignment Wert Zuweisen[3]
Axis/Axes Achse(n)[3]
<source lang=apl inline>\</syntaxhighlight> Backslash Gegenschrägstrich, Backslash
Beside Neben[5]
<source lang=apl inline>→</syntaxhighlight> Branch Verzweigung[3]
Character vector Zeichenvektor
Case folding Case folding[5]
<source lang=apl inline>,</syntaxhighlight> Catenate Verbinde, Verkette[6][n[3]], Konkatenieren[7]
<source lang=apl inline>⌈</syntaxhighlight> Ceiling Aufrunden[6][3]
<source lang=apl inline>○</syntaxhighlight> Circle Kreis(Funktion)[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍪</syntaxhighlight> Comma bar Komma-Strich[5]
<source lang=apl inline>∘</syntaxhighlight> Compose Komponiere
<source lang=apl inline>?</syntaxhighlight> Deal Stichprobe[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⊥</syntaxhighlight> Decode Verschlüsseln[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⊤</syntaxhighlight> Encode Entschlüsseln[3]
<source lang=apl inline>\</syntaxhighlight> Expand Expandieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>*</syntaxhighlight> Exponental Potenzieren zur Basis e[3]
Compositional operators (see Function composition) Kompositions-Operatoren
Compress (see Replicate) Komprimieren[3] (Replicate/Replizieren sinnvoller)
Derived function Abgeleitete Funktionen[7], zusammengesetzte Funktion[3]
Disclose Auspacken
<source lang=apl inline>!</syntaxhighlight> Binomial Binomialkoeff.[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⎕CT</syntaxhighlight> Comparison tolerance Toleranz[3]
<source lang=apl inline>×</syntaxhighlight> [Direction]] Vorzeichen [3]
<source lang=apl inline>÷</syntaxhighlight> Divide Dividieren[3]
Dyadic Dyadisch (Zweistellig[6][3])
<source lang=apl inline>↓</syntaxhighlight> Drop Entfernen[6][3]
<source lang=apl inline>¨</syntaxhighlight> Each Komponentenweise Ausführen[6]
<source lang=apl inline>⊂</syntaxhighlight> Enclose Einpacken
<source lang=apl inline>=</syntaxhighlight> Equal to Gleich[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍎</syntaxhighlight> Execute Ausführen
<source lang=apl inline>!</syntaxhighlight> Factorial Fakultät[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⌊</syntaxhighlight> Floor Abrunden[6][3]
Fork Gabel (Dreierzug)
Format (Funktion) Deaktivieren[6]
<source lang=apl inline>⍕</syntaxhighlight> Format Formatieren[3]
(Function) composition Komposition[8]
Grade Sortierindex[6][3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍒</syntaxhighlight> Grade Down Sortierindex, fallend[6]
<source lang=apl inline>⍋</syntaxhighlight> Grade Up Sortierindex, steigend[6]
<source lang=apl inline>></syntaxhighlight> Greater than Größer[3]
<source lang=apl inline>></syntaxhighlight> Greater than or Equal to Größer-gleich[3]
Guard Wache[5]
Header line Kopfzeile[3]
<source lang=apl inline>¯</syntaxhighlight> High minus hohes Minus, negatives Vorzeichen
Index Index, Indizieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍳</syntaxhighlight> Index Generator Indexvektor[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍳</syntaxhighlight> Index of Index Zeigen[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⎕IO</syntaxhighlight> Index origin Index anfang[3]
Indices Indizes, Indexe
to index indexieren, Indizieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>.</syntaxhighlight> Inner product Inneres Produkt[3]
<source lang=apl inline>∘</syntaxhighlight> Jot Kringel[9]
<source lang=apl inline>⌸</syntaxhighlight> Key Leiter[10]
Label Anweisungsname[3], Sprungmarke, Zeilenmarke
Laminate Schichten, Verketten Schichten[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍝</syntaxhighlight> Lamp Lampe[7]
<source lang=apl inline>⎕LX</syntaxhighlight> Latent expression Latenter Ausdruck[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⊣</syntaxhighlight> Left Links
<source lang=apl inline><</syntaxhighlight> Less than Kleiner[3]
<source lang=apl inline><</syntaxhighlight> Less than or Equal to Kleiner-gleich[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍟</syntaxhighlight> Logarithm Logarithmieren[3]
Major cells
<source lang=apl inline>⌹</syntaxhighlight> Matrix Divide [Lin. Gleichungs-system] Lösen[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⌹</syntaxhighlight> Matrix Inverse Invertieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⌈</syntaxhighlight> Maximum Maximieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>∊</syntaxhighlight> Membership Existenzprüfung[6] (unsicher, Link für Diskussion)
<source lang=apl inline>⌊</syntaxhighlight> Minimum Minimieren[3]
Mixed function Gemischte Funktion[3]
Monadic Monadisch (Einstellig[6][3])
Namespace Namensraum[7]
<source lang=apl inline>⍲</syntaxhighlight> Nand Nicht Beide[3]
N-wise N-fach
<source lang=apl inline>⍟</syntaxhighlight> Natural Logarithm Natürl. Logarithmieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>-</syntaxhighlight> Negate Vorzeichen Umkehren[3]
Nest Nesten
Nested Arrays Geschachtelte Felder
Niladic Niladisch (Nullstellig[6][3])
<source lang=apl inline>⍱</syntaxhighlight> Nor Weder noch[3]
<source lang=apl inline>∨</syntaxhighlight> Or Oder[3]
<source lang=apl inline>∘.</syntaxhighlight> Outer product Äußeres Produkt[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍥</syntaxhighlight> Over Über[5]
overstrike | Übeieinandertippen[3]
<source lang=apl inline>○</syntaxhighlight> Pi times Mit π Multiplizieren[3]
Pick Entnehme
<source lang=apl inline>*</syntaxhighlight> Power Potenzieren[3]
Primitive function Elementarfunktion[6], Einfache Funktion
Primitive operator Elementaroperator[6], Einfacher Operator
<source lang=apl inline>⎕</syntaxhighlight> Quad Fenster, Anforderung num. Ein.-/Ausgabe[3]
<source lang=apl inline>'</syntaxhighlight> Quote Hochkomma
<source lang=apl inline>⍞</syntaxhighlight> Quote-quad Fenster mit Griff (?), Fenster-Hochkomma, Anforderung Textein-/ausgabe[3]
Rank Rang
<source lang=apl inline>,</syntaxhighlight> Ravel Aufreihen[6][3]
<source lang=apl inline>÷</syntaxhighlight> Reciprocal Kehrwert[3]
Reduce Reduziere[n[3]]
Reduction Reduktion
</syntaxhighlight> Residue Rest[3]
Replicate Replizieren
<source lang=apl inline>?</syntaxhighlight> Roll Zufallszahl [Auswählen][3]
<source lang=apl inline>⌽</syntaxhighlight> Reverse Spiegeln[6], Parallel Spiegeln[3] (also for <source lang=apl inline>⊖</syntaxhighlight>)
<source lang=apl inline>⍴</syntaxhighlight> Reshape Rho, Strukturiere[n[3]]
<source lang=apl inline>⊢</syntaxhighlight> Right Rechts
Scalar Skalar[3]
Scalar function Skalarfunktion[3]
<source lang=apl inline>-</syntaxhighlight> Subtract Subtrahieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>?</syntaxhighlight> Roll Zufallszahl [Auswählen][3]
<source lang=apl inline>'</syntaxhighlight> Quote Hochkomma
<source lang=apl inline>⍞</syntaxhighlight> Quote-Quad Fenster-Hochkomma
Same, Identity Indentität
<source lang=apl inline>⍴</syntaxhighlight> Shape Rho, Struktrur zeigen (monadisch) bzw. strukturiere (dyadisch), Dimension [Zeigen][3]
<source lang=apl inline>⊂⊃</syntaxhighlight>Shoe (Left ⁓, Right ⁓) Schuh (Linker ⁓, Rechter ⁓)
</syntaxhighlight> Magnitude Absolutbetrag, Betrag[3]
<source lang=apl inline>~</syntaxhighlight> Not Negieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>=</syntaxhighlight> Not Equal to Ungleich[3]
<source lang=apl inline>\</syntaxhighlight> Scan Aufstufen[3]
<source lang=apl inline>/</syntaxhighlight> Slash Schrägstrich, Slash
<source lang=apl inline>⌿</syntaxhighlight> Slash-bar Schräg- und Querstrich (?)
<source lang=apl inline>⌷</syntaxhighlight> Squish Quad/Squad schmales Fenster
<source lang=apl inline>⌺</syntaxhighlight> Stencil (operator) Schablone[10] (Operator)
Tacit (function) Implizit (e Funktion)
<source lang=apl inline>⊣⊢</syntaxhighlight> Tack (Left ⁓, Right ⁓) Stift (Linker ⁓, Rechter ⁓)
<source lang=apl inline>↑</syntaxhighlight> Take Entnehmen[6][3]
<source lang=apl inline>×</syntaxhighlight> Times Multiplizieren[3]
<source lang=apl inline>⍕</syntaxhighlight> Thorn Dorn
3-Train Dreierzug
(Function) Train Zug
<source lang=apl inline>≢</syntaxhighlight> Tally Zähler
2-Train Zweierzug
<source lang=apl inline>⍉</syntaxhighlight> Transpose Transponieren (when dyadic[3]), Diagonal Spiegeln (when monadic [3])
<source lang=apl inline>∪</syntaxhighlight> Unique Unikat
Unique Mask Unikat-Maske
Without Eliminiere (Ohne?)
<source lang=apl inline>⍸</syntaxhighlight> Where Wo
Workspace Arbeitsbereich
zilde zilde


  1. Dieter Kilsch. APL Germany / GSE Herbsttagung 2020. November 10th, 2020.
  2. Baas, M. Deutsches APL (in German). APL Germany. November 24th, 2020.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 3.59 3.60 3.61 3.62 3.63 3.64 3.65 3.66 3.67 3.68 3.69 3.70 3.71 3.72 3.73 3.74 3.75 3.76 3.77 3.78 3.79 Dieter Lattermann. APL in Beispielen. Oldenbourg. 1982
  4. German Wikipedia: Feld (Datentyp)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Suggested by Michael Baas
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 Hans Lochner: APL2 Handbuch
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 German Wikipedia: APL (Programmiersprache)
  8. German wikipedia: Komposition (Mathematik)
  9. German Wikipedia: Komposition (Mathematik)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Suggested by Adám Brudzewsky

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